April 24, 2009
Prosperity, Drop and fresh Hopes of revival
It should be stated that the history of foreign language teaching is so complicated. The difficulties are the outcome of the rise of the assumptions of numerous theories, strategies, methods and hypotheses that dominated this kind of field, especially beginning from1940s and up right up until now. Today there are many assumptions to get approaches and methods that relate to learning and instructing. All of them claims to be the ideal approach to get learning and teaching a language. In the midst of these circumstances, foreign language instructors find it incredibly difficult to decide upon an approach, a technique or a hypothesis to adopt, as a way the process of educating becomes much easier to them and this, of course , will make the process of learning easier to the scholars in turn. The objective of this brief paper is to explain the assumptions at the rear of what is named ' Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis' (CAH) to language instructing and learning. Examples by English and Arabic; English language and A language like german will be offered, and then display why contrastive analysis was rejected following decades of prosperity by which it centered the area of foreign language educating for almost twenty years. In this impact, According to Larsen-Freeman & Long (1991) in (Yoon, 2002):
it was a time when structural linguistics and behavioral
psychology had been rather major in the study of dialect
learning. CALIFORNIA proponents arrived at advocate that L2 educational
materials could possibly be prepared more efficiently by contrasting two
different languages and, in the process, predict learners' behaviors and difficulties(qtd. in Dina 2).
Contrastive Analysis(CA) was developed by Charles French fries, and was more discussed and solved by Robert Lado. CA is based on the assumptions that almost all the problems done by non-native learners, during their span of studying a language, will be related to the interference of the students' local language. That's why there is trouble learning a language. The learners native language's practices do not very easily allow for the advancement any fresh habits another different vocabulary to take place. Lado and Fries believe that:
Individuals tend to transfer the forms and meanings and the
syndication of varieties and symbolism of their local language
and culture towards the foreign language and culture- both equally productively
once attempting to speak the language and act in the culture
and receptively once attempting to grasp and understand the
dialect and the lifestyle as used by residents. (qtd. in Abbas 2)
The process of learning is more difficult when you will discover differences between the systems of those two 'languages' and more easy when you will find similarities. Whether it is true that most of the troubles encountered by the students, within their path of learning another language, derive from the differences rather than the similarities between the L1 and L2, then the students problems could be believed, and hence could be encountered by simply teaching components that focuses mainly on the differences rather than the similarities involving the L1 and L2. CA is grouped into two forms. A powerful form and A poor form. The strong type predicts that many of L2 errors are due to bad transfer resulting from the differences between your L1 and L2. The weak kind explains errors once they are generally created with out producing prediction. To provide an example about the feasible difficulties that learners may well encounter in learning a foreign terminology, lets consider some vocabulary features of two completely different dialects such as British and Arabic.
English belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, and Arabic belongs to the Semitic 'languages', therefore , they may be almost quite different from one one more in many ways. If a comparison is drawn among English and Arabic in terms of phonology, contrastive analysis predicts that, mainly because Arabic terminology lacks...
Offered: Abbas, Elbadri. " The Relevance of Error Research and Contrastive Analysis. " Http: //www.teaching.org.uk
/blogs/badri/relevance-error-analsis. twenty-eight Feb. 2009. Teachingenglish. org. 22 April. 2009.
Al-Sibia, Dina Meters. " The decline of contrastive analysis - Search. " Yahoo. 26 April. 2004. 03 May 2009.
Al-Sibai M, Dina. The Decline of Contrastive Research Pedagogy. English 523.