Period of insurance
i) Hague Rules
The guidelines in fact cover the entire amount of carriage even during trans-shipment.
ii) Hague – Visby Rules
The Hague – Visby Guidelines apply to the contract of carriage underneath Article (1) (c) from your time when the goods will be loaded on to the time they can be discharged through the ship (Tackle to Tackle).
iii) Hamburg Rules
The Hamburg guidelines covers the period during which the carrier looks after the goods in the port of loading throughout the carriage, including the slot of relieve. Carrier is definitely deemed to get in charge of items at the time of invoice of goods towards the time of delivery.
Under the Freie und hansestadt hamburg Rules the carrier is greater responsibility for deck cargo. In the absence of a statement in a bill of lading that deck carriage is usually permitted the carrier offers unlimited liability if it the truth is carries on deck having the burden of providing authorization. Where the jar is approved to carry on deck, it has similar liabilities such as the case of under deck carriage. This differs in the Hague-Visby Guidelines when there is absolutely no mandatory application of those Rules of deck carriage.
In the case of Pyrene Co Limited., v Scindia Navigation Company Ltd. eleven it was placed thatalthough destruction was caused before the goods had entered the send rails thisdid not essentially mean the exclusion of the rules. In the said judgement it wasstated that simply no special relevance should be placed on the phrase " crammed on”. |
Carrier's Duties and Liabilities – Seaworthiness
i) Hague Guidelines
Even if the carrier fails to work out due diligence to help make the ship seaworthy before including the beginning of the voyage, as well as if that failure triggers the cargo loss or damage, the carrier may possibly nevertheless limit its responsibility for " any loss or harm to or in connexion with goods " to the volume of the package limitation of art. 4(5) of the Hague Rules. The reason is that art. 4(5) provides that: " Nor the transporter nor the ship shall in any event always be or turn into liable for any kind of loss or perhaps damage to or perhaps in union with products in an volume exceeding... " (Emphasis added). In consequence, the carrier's breach of it is due diligence work under artwork. 3(1) in the Hague Rules does not comprise a " fundamental breach" of the obligations underneath the Convention (i. e. the Hague Rules) or the contract of carriage. The desire of due diligence therefore may differ from irrational geographic deviation (art. 4(4)) and via unjustified deck carriage (art. 1(c)), which, when performed intentionally by carrier, happen to be regarded as primary violations of its obligations under the Rules and the agreement of buggy, entailing losing at least the package limitation, and arguably the losing of other defences as well (e. g. the one-year period bar of art. 3(6), the defences of fine art. 4(2)(a) to (q) and any other valid defences of the carrier specified by the contract). Failure to exercise research, while therefore not a " fundamental breach" depriving the carrier with the package limit, should on the other hand deprive it of the one-year time for fit under fine art. 3(6), along with of the artwork. 4(2)(a) to (q) exceptions and some other contractual defences, because of the " overriding" figure of homework and its effect on the buy of proof.
ii) Hague – Visby rules
Under the Hague – Visby guidelines the carrier must workout due diligence to (Article III). (a) make the ship seaworthy
(b) effectively man, render and supply ship
(c) associated with parts of the ship in which goods will be carried fit and safe pertaining to the invoice, carriage and preservations in the goods [Article (III) Rule (1)]. The carrier shall effectively load, take care of, stow, hold, keep, care for and relieve the goods taken (Article (III) Rule 2).
iii) Hamburg Rules
Venedig des nordens (umgangssprachlich) Rules the distinction between your " carrier” and the " actual carrier”. Under the Freie und hansestadt hamburg Rules the carrier is likely for loss, damage, or perhaps delay in delivery of products, if the loss occurred as the goods had been under the...
Sources: Hamburg Rules: United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods simply by Sea, 1978 Alessandro. [Source: http://www.transportrecht.de/]
A Comparative Research of The Hague-Visby Rules, The Hamburg Rules And The Rotterdam Rules, Francesco Berlingieri (Nov. 2009).
The Hague Rules, the Hague-Visby Rules, plus the Hamburg Guidelines, Francis Reynolds (April 1990).
COMPARISON OF HAGUE-VISBY AND FREIE UND HANSESTADT HAMBURG RULES, Ms Anomi Wanigasekera, Messrs Julius & Creasy (2007).