Gender Wage Gape Essay

Gendered Spots and Close Citizenship

The truth of Breastfeeding

Lisa Smyth

QUEEN'S SCHOOL BELFAST

ABSTRACT

This article situates breastfeeding national politics in the framework of romantic citizenship, exactly where women's power to care in lots of social spots is at share. Drawing on the task of Lefebvre and Fenster, the article looks at the degree to which recent breastfeeding advertising work by Health Promo Agency in Northern Ireland in europe has wanted to reconceive of social spaces in manners that have the to improve intimate citizenship to get breastfeeding females.

KEY WORDS breastfeeding ◆ capacities ◆ gender ◆ well being promotion ◆ intimate nationality ◆ North Ireland ◆ space

LAUNCH

... breasts can handle transforming laws, citizenship, and cities themselves. (Bartlett, 2002: 111)

Much research has been carried out which seeks to determine why a few women breastfeed while others tend not to. The explanations cover a variety of factors, like the economic and political effect of unnatural milk manufacturers (e. g. Palmer, 1993); the medicalization of being pregnant, childbearing and infant nourishing and the development of ‘scientific mothering' (e. g. Apple, 1987); the lack of significant breastfeeding function models for new mothers (e. g. The bentley et approach., 2003); the sexualization of breasts plus the shame and embarrassment connected with exposing chest in public places (e. g. Bartlett, 2002; Carter, 1995); a desire to shift the burden of feeding on to others, not least dads (e. g. Earle, 2150; Maher, 1992); and the European Journal of Women's Research Copyright © 2008 SAGE Publications (Los Angeles, Birmingham, New Delhi and Singapore), 1350-5068 Volume. 15(2): 83–99; http://ejw.sagepub.com DOI: 10. 1177/1350506808090305

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difficulty of returning to paid job while continuing to breastfeeding (e. g. Hausman, 2004). This article tries to position this variety of reasons inside two broader contexts. First, I believe breastfeeding can be regarded as a web site where Plummer's notion of intimate nationality (2001, 2003) is in question. The embodied character of breastfeeding as a social practice raises the sorts of questions about queer breastfeeding observed by Giles (2003) and Longhurst (2008). Second, breastfeeding a baby would seem to offer a good example of where nationality, in this case close, is mediated by a gendered entitlement to inhabit and use public space (Fenster, 2005). Since Stearns (1999: 322) provides noted, ‘the actual labor of breastfeeding a baby is increased because girls must continuously negotiate and manage the act of breastfeeding in every sector of society – in public in addition to the home'. Consequently, the breastfeeding women she spoke to did their best to attain invisibility in breastfeeding, often at significant cost (Stearns, 1999: 313). In what follows, I initial outline thinking about intimate citizenship, and particularly the ways in which breastfeeding a baby as a great embodied, dyadic, careoriented practice, which often automatically takes place in ‘public' or social places, can be viewed from this light. Second, I go over the ways by which citizenship is definitely mediated through the social creation of space, in generally gendered techniques. Turning in that case to North Ireland, the ultimate section of this article focuses on work to reconceive of sociable spaces since breastfeedingfriendly in Northern Ireland in europe, through the operate of the Well being Promotion Company (HPANI) in the region. The key issue this article is focused on is whether perceptions and conceptions of cultural space in breastfeeding politics might lead to improved intimate citizenship for nursing women.

PERSONAL CITIZENSHIP Plummer's ‘sensitising concept' of personal citizenship seeks to explain the broad range of conflicts and contestations linked to practices and processes of intimate your life. If we appreciate citizenship being a distinct, and relatively slender, form of owned by a collectivity (Isin and Wood,...

Recommendations: 97

Anderson, J. and I. Shuttleworth (1998) ‘Sectarian Population analysis, Territoriality and Political Advancement in North Ireland', Politics Geography 18: 187–208. Apple, R. D. (1987) Mothers and Medicine: A Cultural History of Newborn Feeding, 1890–1950. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Bacchi, C. T. and C. Beasley (2002) ‘Citizen Bodies: Is Put Citizenship a Contradiction with regards to? ', Crucial Social Insurance plan 22: 324–52. Bartlett, A. (2002) ‘Scandalous Practices and Political Performances: Breastfeeding in the City', Procession: Journal of Media and Cultural Research 16: 111–21. BBC Radio 4 (2007) Broadcasting House, 13th Might. Bentley, Meters., D. Dee and L. Jensen (2003) ‘Breastfeeding between Low Income, African-American Females: Power, Morals and Decision Making', Diary of Nutrition 133: 305S–309S. Blum, L. M. (1999) At the Breasts: Ideologies of Breastfeeding and Motherhood inside the Contemporary Us. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Bolling, E. (2006) Toddler Feeding Review 2005: Early on Results. Birmingham: The Information Centre for Health and Social Attention and Office of Health. Carter, S. (1995) Feminism, Breasts and Breast-Feeding. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Cornell, D. (1995) The Fictional Domain: Abortion, Pornography and Sexual Nuisance. New York: Routledge. Department of Health and Sociable Services Northern Ireland (1999) Breastfeeding Strategy for Northern Ireland. Belfast: DHSS. Dowler, D. (2002) ‘Till Death perform us Component: Masculinity, Companionship, and Nationalism in Belfast, Northern Ireland', Environment and Planning D – Society & Space 20: 53–71. Earle, T. (2000) ‘Why Some Girls do not Breasts Feed: Bottle of wine Feeding and Fathers' Role', Midwifery sixteen: 323–30. Earle, S. (2002) ‘Factors Impacting the Initiation of Breastfeeding: Implications to get Breastfeeding Promotion', Health Campaign International 17: 205–14. Edgerton, L. (1986) ‘Public Demonstration, Domestic Faith: Women in Northern Ireland', pp. 61–79 in L. Ridd and H. Callaway (eds) Caught up in Conflict: Ladies Responses to Political Turmoil. Basingstoke: Macmillan/Oxford University Ladies Studies Committee. Fenster, T. (2005) ‘The Right to the Gendered Town: Different Composition of Belonging in Every day Life', Diary of Gender Studies 13: 217–31. Foss, K. A. and M. G. Southwell (2006) ‘Infant Feeding inside the Media: The Relationship between Parents Magazine Content and Child, 1972–2000', International Breastfeeding Journal 1 doi: 10. 1186/1746-4358-1-10. Giles, N. (2003) New Milk: The Secret Life of Breasts. New York: Simon and Schuster. Greene, J., W. Stewart-Knox and M. Wright (2003) ‘Feeding Preferences and Attitudes to Breastfeeding and its Promotion between Teenagers in Northern Ireland', Journal of Human Suckling 19: 57–65. Hamlyn, B., S. Brooker, K. Oleinikova and S i9000. Wands (2000) Infant Nourishing 2000: A Survey Done on Behalf of the Department of Health, the Scottish Exec, the National Assembly pertaining to Wales and the Department of Health, Cultural Services and Public Security in Northern Ireland. London, uk: The Stationery Office. Hausman, B. M. (2003) Mom's Milk: Child Controversies in American Lifestyle. New York: Routledge. Hausman, B. L. (2004) ‘The Feminist Politics of Breastfeeding', Australian Feminist Research 19: 273–85. HPANI (Health Promotion Organization Northern Ireland) (2004) Taking Breastfeeding in the Spotlight A radio station Advert 1, Belfast at: http://www.breastfedbabies. org/Breastfedbabies-radio-advert-one. mp3. Utilized: 15. 05. 07.

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HPANI (Health Promotion Company Northern Ireland) (May 2004, February 2005) Good for Baby, Good for Mother, TV Ad, Belfast at: http://www.breastfedbabies.org/Breastfedbabies-radio-advert-one. mp3 format. Accessed: 12-15. 05. 07. HPANI (Health Promotion Agency Northern Ireland) (2005a) ‘‘‘Breastfeeding Welcome In this article Initiative” Introduced by HPA', Inform 41(1); at: www.healthpromotionagency.org.uk/Resources/corporate/inform/pdfs /inform41. pdf format HPANI (Health Promotion Firm Northern Ireland) (2005b) ‘Breastfeeding Awareness Advertising campaign Success', Advise 41(3); by: www.healthpromotionagency.org.uk/Resources/corporate/inform/pdfs/inform41. pdf file HPANI (Health Promotion Company Northern Ireland) (2007) ‘If You Could, Might you? ', paper advertisement in: http://www.healthpromotionagency.org. uk/shared/adverts. asp? address=breast. Accessed: sixteen. 05. 07. Isin, Elizabeth. F. and P. E. Wood (1999) Citizenship and Identity. Birmingham and Thousand Oaks, FLORIDA: Sage. Kitchin, R. and K. Lysaght (2003) ‘Heterosexism and the Geographies of Everyday Your life in Belfast, Northern Ireland', Environment and Planning A thirty-five: 489–510. Shelter, E. (2007) ‘Health, Values, and Newborn Feeding: United kingdom Mothers' Encounters of Formulation Milk Use in the Early Weeks', Sociology of Health and Illness 29: 1–16. Lefebvre, L. (1991) The availability of Space. Oxford: Blackwell. Leonard, Meters. (2006) ‘Teens and Place in Competitive Spaces: Settling Sectarian Extremite in Upper Ireland', Kids Geographies 5: 225–35. Longhurst, R. (2008) Maternities: Gender, Bodies, and Spaces. Birmingham: Routledge. Lysaght, K. (2002) ‘Dangerous Close friends and Dangerous Foes: Shows of Masculinity in the Divided City', Irish Geography thirty five: 51–62. Maher, V. (1992) ‘Breast-Feeding in Cross-Cultural Point of view: Paradoxes and Proposals', pp. 1–36 in V. Maher (ed. ) The Anthropology of Breast-Feeding: Natural Rules or Interpersonal Construct. Oxford: Berg. Marshall, T. L. (1950) Nationality and Cultural Class, and also other Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge School Press. Massey, D. B. (1994) Space, Place, and Gender. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Murphy, E. (2000) ‘Risk, Responsibility, and Rhetoric in Infant Feeding', Journal of recent Ethnography 29: 291–325. Murphy, E., S. Parker and C. Phipps (1999) ‘Motherhood, Morality, and Infant Feeding' pp. 242–258, in L. Germov and L. Williams (eds) A Sociology of Food and Nutrition: The Social Urge for food. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nussbaum, Meters. C. (1995) ‘Human Capacities, Female Human being Beings', pp. 61–104 in M. C. Nussbaum and J. Glover (eds) Women, Culture, and Development. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pain, L., C. Mcneally and G. Mowl (2001) ‘Infant Feeding in North East Britain: Contested Places of Reproduction', Area thirty-three: 261–72. Palmer, G. (1993) The Politics of Breastfeeding. London: The planet pandora. Plummer, T. (2001) ‘The Square of Intimate Nationality: Some Initial Proposals', Nationality Studies a few: 237–53. Plummer, K. (2003) Intimate Nationality: Private Decisions and Open public Dialogues. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Schmied, Sixth is v. and M. Lupton (2001) ‘Blurring the Boundaries: Breastfeeding and Mother's Subjectivity', Sociology of Health insurance and Illness 3: 234–50. Sear, C., Versus. Miller and J. Lourie (2003) Breastfeeding in Parliament. London: House of Commons Library, Legislative house and Constitution Centre Business and Transportation.

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Sittlington, J., B. Stewart-Knox, M. Wright, My spouse and i. Bradbury and J. A. Scott (2006) ‘Infant-Feeding Behaviour of Expectant Mothers in Northern Ireland', Health Education Analysis: Theory and Practice; by: her. oxfordjournals. org/cgi/ reprint/cyl113v1. pdf Stearns, C. (1999) ‘Breastfeeding plus the Good Mother's Body', Male or female and Society 13: 308–25. Stewart-Knox, M., K. Gardiner and M. Wright (2003) ‘What may be the Problem with Breast-Feeding? A Qualitative Analysis of Infant Nourishing Perceptions', Log of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 18: 265–73. Truck Esterik, P. (2002) ‘Contemporary Trends in Infant Nourishing Research', Gross annual Review of Anthropology 31: 257–78. Wall, G. (2001) ‘Moral Constructions of Motherhood in Breastfeeding Discourse', Gender and Society 15: 592–610. Keep, M. (2006) ‘Gender, Citizenship, and the Way forward for the Northern Ireland Peace Process', Éire-Ireland 41: 262–83.

Lisa Smyth is a lecturer in sociology at Queen's University Belfast. She works on gender and reproduction, gendered national/cultural details, moral national politics, feminism and intimate nationality. She has posted the book Abortion and Nation: The Politics of Reproduction in Contemporary Ireland in europe (Ashgate, 2005). She has also published focus on the social politics of sex education and abortion debates in Northern Ireland. She is presently planning work on the gendered dynamics of public space in modern Belfast, as part of a large ESRC-funded project in ‘Conflict in Cities as well as the Contested State', a cooperation between Queen's, Exeter and Cambridge Schools. Address: College of Sociology, Social Plan and Social Work, Queen's University Belfast, 6 University Park, Belfast, BT7 1NN, UK. [email: T. [email protected] air conditioner. uk]

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